When the Holy Prophet came to Madinah, he made agreements with the Jewish tribes of Madinah to defend the city from foreign invaders and to maintain peace and order. But instead of defending it from its enemies, they organized a campaign of slander against Islam and its followers. They first tried to create disruption between the two main tribes of Madinah i.e., the Aus and the Khazraj. Then they incurred the displeasure of Muslims by their contacts with the Quraish of Makkah.
At the time of the Battle of Badr, they did not help the Muslims according to the treaty signed with the Holy Prophet PBUH. After the Battle of Badr, Ka ab, the leader of the Jews propagated against Muslims and maintained secret communication with Abu Sufyan. He even tried to murder the Holy Prophet PBUH.
Among the three tribes of the Jews- the Banu Qainuqa., Banu Nazir and Banu Quraiza-the Banu Qainuqa, were the first to break the treaty that was signed earlier and fought with the Muslims in the periods between the Battles of Badr and Uhad. Attempts made by the Prophet PBUH to come to terms with the Jews were unsuccessful. Thereupon, a siege was enforced against the Banu Qainuqa, the result of which was their expulsion from Madinah. In the third year of the Hijrat, Ka’ab was executed for his activities against Madinah and the Muslims.
In the 4th year of the Hijrat, the Banu Nazir tribe of the Jews plotted to murder the Prophet and at the instigation of the Quraish planned to rise against the Muslims. The Prophet sent them a message to leave Madinah within ten days. But they rejected it and shut themselves up in their fortresses. At this the Prophet led an army against them and laid siege to their forts. After a siege of two weeks, the Jews surrendered. They were exiled from Madinah.
The third tribe of the Jews – Banu Quraiza, openly joined the Quraish in the Battle of Ditch. After the battle, they were told to leave the city. But on their refusal, the Prophet besieged their settlements. At last they also surrendered to him and agreed to abide by the decision of Sa’ad bin Mu’az who decided their fate according to the Jewish law of the Old Testament. Their men were slain, the women sold as captives and their lands and properties were divided among the Muslims.
Most of the Jews expelled from Madinah took shelter at Khyber, near the border of Syria. Here they began to plot against the Muslims in co-operation with the Bedouin tribes. In 5 A.H., the fortresses at Khyber were besieged and captured by the Muslims. The Jews were allowed to remain there by contributing a share of their produce to the Muslim government.
But the Jews did not refrain altogether from enmity towards the Muslims and the Holy Prophet PBUH. Once again, they plotted to murder the Prophet PBUH by poisoning him but fortunately, the Prophet PBUH was saved. The Jews continued to cherish evil designs against the Muslims up to the reign of the second Khalifa Hazrat Umar when they were asked to leave syria.